General Education Segment III Policy & Guidelines (revised)

Reference Number: F88-157
Senate Approval Date: Tuesday, December 13, 1988
Presidential Approval Date: 
Friday, March 3, 1989
Archival Information: 

 

***This policy was superceded by F04-064: General Education Program Policy Consolidation***

ACADEMIC SENATE POLICY RECOMMENDATION

 

January 13, 1989

 

TO: President Robert A. Corrigan

 

FROM: Vera W. Lane, Chair, Academic Senate

 

SUBJECT: REVISED POLICY & GUIDELINES FOR GENERAL EDUCATION SEGMENT III, POLICY RECOMMENDATION f#88-157

 

 

SOURCE COMMITTEE:

 

Educational Policies Council

 

SENATE ACTION:

 

Attached to this memo is the revised General Education Policy (#F80- 64) regarding Segment III (pp. 1-4), and the revised Guidelines for Preparing Proposals and General Education Specific Objectives regarding Segment III (pp. 5-10) as passed by the Academic Senate December 13, 1988. The policy revisions are the result of extensive consultation and deliberation by the Segment III Committee, the General Education Council, the Educational Policies Council and the Academic Senate.

 

A clean copy of the revised sections and information from the Chair of the General Education Council are also attached for your perusal.

 

We would appreciate your review and approval of the revised policy.

 

COPIES TO:

Tom Spencer, Assistant to the President

Erwin Seibel, Dean of Undergraduate Studies

Rufus Browning, Chair, General Education Council

Dorothy Piontkowski, Chair, EPC

 

 

 

PRESIDENTIAL ACTION:

 

See attached memorandum.

March 3, 1989

 

To: Vera Lane

Chair, Academic Senate

 

From: Robert A. Corrigan

President

 

Subject: Revised Policy and Guidelines for General Education Segment III

 

I have carefully reviewed and approved the Revised Policy and Guidelines for General Education Segment III, Academic Senate Policy Recommendation #F88-157.

 

First, I want to thank those faculty members who participated in and served on the Internal Review Committee, the Segment III Committee, the General Education Council, and the Educational Policies Committee. I know that the work on the development of this policy recommendation must have been difficult at best. I appreciate the faculty’s efforts to wrestle with the General Education issues and to do so in an open discussion and debate format.

 

Although I am approving these revised policy and guideline recommendations at this time, I expect that the new Vice President for Academic Affairs will have a serious interest in the University’s General Education program. In fact, I will be requesting that the Vice President give very careful attention to the entire General Education program. We want to be certain that we are offering our students the very best program we can and, at the same time, maximizing the use of our resources in the process.

 

Please relay my thanks to all of those who helped in the development of these improvements for Segment III.

 

RAC:mm

 

cc: Eric Solomon, Acting Provost

Erwin Seibel, Dean, Undergraduate Studies

Rufus Browning, Chair, General Education Council

REVISED POLICY & GUIDELINES FOR

GENERAL EDUCATION SEGMENT III

Academic Senate Policy Recommendation #F88-157

 

At its meetings of November 22 and December 13, 1988, the Academic Senate approved revisions to Segment III of the General Education Policy (#F80-64) (pp. 1-4), and Guidelines for General Education (pp. 5-10) as follows:

 

GENERAL EDUCATION POLICY (#F80-64)

 

SEGMENT III — RELATIONSHIPS OF KNOWLEDGE 9 Units

 

Segment III shall consist of clusters of courses around a common theme. Each cluster must require at least nine semester units of course work.

 

All students are required to take a minimum of nine units of upper division course work in a Segment III cluster as the culmination of the general education component of the baccalaureate curriculum. In order for students to interrelate the knowledge and abilities they have gained through their general education experiences with the knowledge and abilities they have gained, or are pursuing, in their major programs, courses in this Segment must be taken after the student has achieved upper division status.

 

Students must complete Segment I before enrolling in Segment III courses.

 

General Objectives:

 

The general objectives of course work in Segment III are to provide students with the opportunity to integrate/interrelate their abilities, knowledge, and experience, and to apply their abilities, knowledge, and experience to making decisions; identifying, investigating, and evaluating human achievements; and presenting possible solutions to individual and/or societal issues or problems.  In order to meet these general objectives, each 9 unit curricular package of courses in this Segment must be interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary with internal cohesiveness.  The courses or blocks of courses may be the required core courses for a new or existing interdisciplinary minor; they may be newly designed or re-designed existing courses which, as part of a block, focus on issues, problems, or themes.  When appropriate, field studies, research projects, or experiments designed to assess and augment students’ ability to integrate those comptetncies and understanding gained throughout their academic careers should be a part of a core or block of courses.

 

Within Segment III the student must take at least one course which is centrally focused upon aiding the student in the development of awareness and understanding of cultural, ethnic or social diversity [which may focus on the local, national and/or global level(s)] and the complexities presented by such diversity in the study of any given human issue or achievement. Courses which meet this requirement must include some information on, or awareness of, the impact of the course content on the various socio-economic groups potentially affected by the issue(s) or problem(s) associated with the topic(s) being studies. Where appropriate other courses in this segment should also include a cultural diversity dimension.

 

 

General Learning Outcomes

 

After completion of this Segment, students:

 

1. Should have a greater appreciation of the complexity of problems and issues which confront individuals and societies as well as a greater appreciation of human achievements.

 

2. Should be both willing and able to study the origin and development of problems and issues.

 

3. Should demonstrate some ability to designing effective procedures for investigating problems and issues utilizing their awareness that various personal, cultural, and/or procedural biases are an integral part of any research endeavor and must be taken into account.

 

4. Should be willing and able to present solutions but with the awareness of the effects such solutions may have on existing or newly created problems or issues.

 

5. Should appreciate the complexity of problems and issues which are specifically related to individuals and societies, and understand that a given problem or issue will be experienced and confronted by various cultural/ethnic groups in different ways.

 

Proposals for course sequences within this Segment will be designed and submitted by faculty members from the Schools of the Arts and Sciences Core and from inter-school programs, as well as from the School of Education, HPER, Business, and Ethnic Studies. All General Education Committees are expected to maintain an open policy toward acceptance of course proposals from departments and schools not normally in the area designated by the committee title. The courses or blocks of courses may be team-taught, offered in parallel, or offered in sequence. They may be organized as modules of varying units with each module focusing on one aspect of the theme or core.

 

Any department, school, or qualified faculty member may submit for consideration a course/program proposal which meets the specific objectives of Segment III. These objectives will be developed by the Relationships of Knowledge Committee and published by the General Education Council for review in accordance with established curriculum review procedures.

 

The Relationships of Knowledge (Segment III) Committee shall be made up of twelve members composed on one elected representative from each school, one student member, one member at-large to be elected from an unrepresented area or program other than a school, and one representative from the Interdisciplinary Council.  Associate deans and deans of the various schools are ineligible to serve on the committee.  The Dean of Undergraduate Studies will serve in an ex-officio capacity on this committee.  Terms of office for faculty members will be three years, with initial terms staggered among one, two, and three years.

 

Responsibilities of the Segment III Committee

 

1. Ensuring that all clusters meet the current objectives and cluster requirements of Segment III — Relationships of Knowledge.

 

2. a) Recommending approval to the General Education Council of revised and new clusters which meet the objectives and cluster requirements for Segment III.

b) Requesting consultation and/or revision concerning clusters and/or courses which fail to meet the objectives and cluster requirements for Segment III.

c) Recommending deletion of clusters or courses which continue to fail to meet the objectives and cluster requirements for Segment III. The Committee shall state in writing its reasons for disapproval or deletion of courses or clusters.

d) Recommending the merger of clusters with closely related themes and the addition of courses to clusters, as a means of fulfilling the Committee’s responsibilities enumerated in items 1, 3, and 5.

e) Soliciting the development of new clusters in instances where important themes are not represented.

 

3. Ensuring that the clusters represent a broad range of issues. The Committee may solicit suggestions and/or proposals for new issues or topics.

 

4. Reviewing proposals for new clusters and revisions of existing clusters every two years, beginning in Fall semester, 1989.

 

5. Maintaining Segment III at an appropriate size to ensure quality of program, student choice and accessibility, and a breadth of issues.

 

6. Ensuring that sufficient numbers of clusters and courses are available to students in the late afternoon or evening.

 

7. Facilitating student fulfillment of cluster requirements through a system for designating in the Class Schedule and Bulletin those courses which are not offered each semester.

 

8. Working closely with the Dean of Undergraduate Studies concerning coordination of clusters, monitoring of course offerings, and the identification and resolution of problems in Segment III.

 

9. Developing and implementing a system of evaluation for Segment III.

 

10. Reviewing and improving curriculum and instruction in Segment III, in conjunction with cluster coordinators and teaching faculty.

 

11. Monitoring Segment III and recommending changes in policy to the General Education Council.

 

GUIDELINES FOR PREPARING PROPOSALS

AND GENERAL EDUCATION SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

 

 

SEGMENT III

RELATIONSHIPS OF KNOWLEDGE (9 UNITS)

 

All students will be required to take a minimum of nine units of upper division course work as the culmination of the general education component of the baccalaureate curriculum. In order for students to interrelate the knowledge and abilities they have gained through their general education experiences with the knowledge and abilities they have gained, or are pursuing, in their major programs, courses in this Segment must be taken after the student has achieved upper division status.

 

I. OBJECTIVES

 

The general objectives of course work in Segment III are to provide students with the opportunity to integrate/interrelate their abilities, knowledge, and experience, and to apply their abilities, knowledge, and experience to making decisions; identifying, investigating, and evaluating human achievements; and presenting possible solutions to individual and/or societal issues or problems.  In order to meet these general objectives, each 9 unit curricular package of courses in this Segment must be interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary with internal cohesiveness.  The courses or blocks of courses may be the required core courses for a new or existing interdisciplinary minor; they may be newly designed or re-designed existing courses which, as part of a block, focus on issues, problems, or themes.  When appropriate, field studies, research projects, or experiments designed to assess and augment students’ ability to integrate those competencies and understandings gained throughout their academic careers should be a part of a core or block of courses.

 

Within Segment III the student must take at least one course which is centrally focused upon aiding the student in the development of awareness and understanding of cultural and ethnic diversity [which may focus on the local, national and for global levels(s)) and the complexities presented by such diversity in the study of any given human issue or achievement. Courses which meet this requirement must include some information on, or awareness of, the impact of the course content on the various socio-economic groups potentially affected by the issue(s) or problem(s) associated with the topic(s) being studies. Where appropriate, other courses in this Segment should also include a cultural diversity dimension.

 

 

Definition: A cluster is a package of courses in Segment III, built around a common theme and requiring at least nine units of coursework, either an existing package or a proposal for a new one.

 

The objectives set forth here apply to existing clusters, to proposals for new clusters, and to the evaluation of clusters. Existing clusters will accomplish the objectives and meet cluster requirements. Proposals will demonstrate how they will do so. Evaluation will be conducted in terms of the objectives and requirements.

 

1. Theme

 

A cluster must focus on a theme which is highly significant in terms of human experience, achievements or problems, past and/or present, and which compels an interdisciplinary perspective.

 

2. Integration and Application

 

a) Clusters must encourage students to integrate their knowledge, experience and abilities around the theme; and to develop their capacities for synthesis and analysis, including problem solving, decision making, investigating and evaluating the implications of an issue.

 

b) Each course in a cluster must provide for discussion, written assignments and critical analysis.

 

3. Interdisciplinary or Multidisciplinary Perspectives

 

A goal of this Segment is to ensure that students understand a diversity of approaches to the theme. The cluster as a whole must expose students to at least two significantly different disciplinary perspectives. This criterion may be fulfilled in two ways.

 

a) A cluster may include courses from different disciplines that provide students with different perspectives, methods, theories and paradigms for approaching issues, and that show how these methodologies may be integrated to achieve a fuller understanding of the theme under consideration. Clusters that take this approach must pay particular attention to the internal cohesiveness criterion below.

 

b) A cluster may include courses drawn from a program that has been formally recognized as interdisciplinary in its approach and philosophy, courses which encourage the integration of methodologies towards a fuller understanding of the theme under consideration.

 

4. Internal Cohesiveness

 

Each of the clusters must be internally cohesive. Cohesiveness will be judged in terms of the extent to which the various courses are related to one another. The faculties of each cluster are expected to formulate their individual courses with a clear understanding of what the students will be learning in the other courses in the cluster and to demonstrate that the courses complement one another.

 

5. Cultural, Ethnic or Social Diversity

 

At least one course in each cluster must have as a central objective that students develop an awareness, appreciation, and understanding of the diversity of human experience, values, and contributions, and of “the contributions to knowledge and civilization that have been made by members of various cultural and by women” (E. O. 338).  Inherent in this requirement is the concept of cultural pluralism, which embraces ethnic, cross-cultural, and intercultural studies as well as studies of the relationship between dominant and non-dominant social groups.  Courses that fulfill this requirement should include a substantial consideration of cultures other than the Western European and North American or a substantial consideration of non-dominant social groups in the U.S.  Non-dominant social groups include but are not limited to women, the aging, the disabled, lesbians and gays, and the poor, as well as ethnic and racial groups who have been excluded from dominant social, economic, or political institutions.  Courses meeting the CESD requirement should treat one or more such groups in relationship to the issue or theme of the cluster. 

 

CULTURAL, ETHNIC OR SOCIAL DIVERSITY

REQUIREMENT OF SEGMENT III

 

 

The objective of requiring a course focused substantially on cultural, ethnic or social diversity is to ensure that students will develop an awareness, appreciation, and understanding of the diversity of cultural and social experience, values, and contributions. Inherent in this mandate is the concept of cultural pluralism, which embraces ethnic, cross-cultural, and intercultural studies as well as studies of the relationship between dominant and non-dominant social groups. Most courses in the University reflect the experiences, contributions, and values of the Western European and North American tradition and the dominant American culture. Thus, courses that fulfill this requirement should in most cases include a substantial consideration of cultures other than the Western European and North American and/or a substantial consideration of non-dominant social groups in the United States.

 

Cultural, ethnic or social diversity should deal with the question of how social groups or foreign cultures are affected by the issues or theme of the Segment cluster. The experience of non-dominant social groups distinguished by a status category other than race, ethnicity, or national origin (e.g., women, the aging, the physically disabled, gays, etc.) may be included as part of the fulfillment of this requirement. Cultural, ethnic or social diversity should be interpreted broadly in that: (a) greater emphasis may be placed on either cultural, ethnic or social aspects; (b) culture may have political, ethnic, historical, sexual, religious, language, or class boundaries. Courses should also provide information about socio-economic groups as they are affected by the issue or problem under consideration.

 

The requirement for a central focus can be fulfilled in such ways as the following:

 

A. A course may examine the application of a cluster’s theme to one particular cultural, ethnic or social group or foreign culture. Where courses are devoted specifically to non-dominant groups such as ethnic groups, women, or to the culture of countries other than the United States, they should take into account social and economic variations within the primary group under consideration.

 

Among the courses in this category that will be favorably considered, so long as they also fulfill the other criteria for Segment III, are the following:

 

1. Courses in Ethnic Studies which expose students to the relationship between dominant and non-dominant cultures and to the diversity of the American ethnic heritage.

 

2. Courses on the experience or culture and language of non-English speaking peoples, especially those of developing and other non-Western European countries.

 

3. Courses that focus on the experience of non-dominant social groups defined by a status category other than race, ethnicity, or national origin (e.g., women, the aging, the physically disabled, etc.) if they examine substantially the diversity of ethnicity and/or socio-economic status within the particular social group.

 

B. A special portion of the course may be devoted exclusively to the application of the cluster theme to the ethnic, cultural, and social groups defined above. In this case, at least one-third of the course should engage in this endeavor. A portion of these sessions may deal with non-dominant groups other than those categorized as ethnic or racial, but at least two weeks should be devoted to ethnic diversity and a portion should deal with socio-economic differences. Courses that focus this special portion exclusively on ethnicity are acceptable so long as they include a socio-economic component.

 

C. A course may integrate the analysis of ethnic and other cultural groups into each topic as it is presented. Where cultural and non-dominant/ethnic groups are considered throughout the course, the course outline should clearly demonstrate how each major topic applies to them. A consideration of socio-economic differences should be included.

 

D. A course may have a central focus on cross-cultural studies (e.g. the comparison of two or more cultures’ history, socio-political and economic structures, art, religion, etc.) especially if one or more of the cultures is non-Western European. These studies should implement the Segment theme and should consider socio-economic differences.

 

II. REQUIREMENTS FOR CLUSTERS

 

A. Proposals

 

Proposals must show how the cluster as a whole fulfills the objectives of Segment III and the requirements set forth in this section. Course material must be sufficiently explicit and detailed to show the contributions of each course to the fulfillment of the aims of the cluster. When the requirements for the cluster provide the students with alternative combinations of courses, the justification for the cluster must demonstrate that any acceptable combination of courses meets all the objectives of the Segment.

 

B. Clusters and Courses

 

1. Low-enrollment Clusters

 

Clusters chosen by fewer than 1 percent of graduates in an academic year shall be reviewed by the Segment III Committee; if such a cluster can not be suitably revised and continues to draw fewer than 1 percent of the graduates, it may be deleted from Segment III.

 

2. Implementation of CESD Requirement

 

Student completion of the Cultural, Ethnic or Social Diversity requirement must follow from the requirements of the cluster itself. At least one requirement of the cluster must direct the student to take a CESD course or one of a set of courses, all of which have been approved for the CESD requirement.

 

3. Coordination

 

a) Each cluster must have a coordinator who is responsible for the cluster and for communications concerning the cluster. The coordinator is responsible for submitting the annual cluster report and proposals for revision of the cluster as needed or as requested by the Segment III Committee. The cluster coordinator is responsible for communicating with the instructors of the courses in the cluster to ensure that the objectives of Segment III — Relationships of Knowledge continue to be met.

 

b) In the event of vacancies or problems in the coordinator’s role, it is the responsibility of the dean(s) of the school(s) in which the cluster is primarily located, in consultation with cluster faculty, to appoint a new coordinator.

 

4. Course Approval and Variable-Topic Courses

 

All courses in Segment III clusters must be upper division courses which have been approved for the SFSU Bulletin. In the case of variable topic courses, only the generic title is listed in the Bulletin. Each variant of a variable topic course must be individually approved for a given cluster.

 

5. Frequency of Course Offerings

 

a) Clusters must be accessible to students and will be evaluated in terms of how accessible they are.

 

b) Each course in a cluster must be offered at least once in each academic year. A course offering is defined as a listing in the course history file which lists course enrollments at the fourth week of instruction. An exception may be made when the sole instructor of a cluster course plans to be on leave for a full year; in this case, the instructor or the department chair should inform the cluster coordinator and the Segment III Committee Chair at least one semester in advance of the leave. Also, exceptions to the once—a—year rule may be made when the sole instructor of a cluster course has an extended illness and the cluster coordinator requests the exception. NEXA will be excepted from this rule.

 

c) Courses typically offered less than once a semester will be so designated in the General Education sections of the Class Schedule and the Bulletin.

 

d) Offering plan. Each cluster shall submit an Offering Plan which adheres to these requirements and to which the deans or directors of schools, and the chairpersons of departments or programs which offer courses in the cluster, have indicated their agreement. The Offering Plan shall show the planned frequency and pattern of offering for courses in the cluster.

 

6. Evaluation

 

a) The Segment III Committee will be responsible for devising an evaluation process for Segment III. This process will include detailed information specifying how often courses (or clusters) will be evaluated, who will evaluate courses (or clusters), who will have access to the results of the evaluation, and the time frame to be used before the committee can recommend revision or deletion of a course or cluster from Segment III.

 

b) This evaluation process must be approved by the General Education Council, the Educational Policies Council and the Academic Senate before it can be formally adopted. This process must also be reviewed for any possible conflict with the current CFA contract before it receives final approval.

 

 

 

*** APPROVED BY PRESIDENT CORRIGAN - MARCH 3, 1989 ***

Key to Revisions

 

  • • Added language is underlines, deleted language is struck through.

 

  • • Language not underlined is the original language of the Policy or the Guidelines.

 

  • • Double-underlined works in text are not added but were underlined in the original.

 

PART I. PROPOSED AMENDMENTS TO ACADEMIC SENATE POLICY #F80-64

 

A. Amendment to Require 9-Unit Clusters

 

SEGMENT III - RELATIONSHIPS OF KNOWLEDGE 9 units

 

Segment III shall consist of clusters of courses around a common theme.  Each cluster must require at least nine semester units of course work.

 

All students will be are required to take a minimum or nine units of upper division course work in a Segment III cluster as the culmination of the general education component of the baccalaureate  curriculum.  In order for students to interrelate the knowledge and abilities they have gained through their general education experiences with the knowledge and abilities they have gained, or are pursuing, in their major programs, courses in this Segment must be taken after the student has achieved upper division status.

 

Students must complete Segment I before enrolling in Segment III courses.

 

General Objectives

 

The general objectives of course work in Segment III are to provide students with the opportunity to integrate/interrelate their abilities, knowledge, and experience, and to apply their abilities, knowledge, and experience to making decisions; identifying, investigating, and evaluating human achievements; and presenting possible solutions to individual and/or societal issues or problems.  In order to meet these general objectives, each 9 unit curricular package of courses in this Segment must be interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary with internal cohesiveness.  The courses or blocks of courses may be the required core courses for a new or existing interdisciplinary minor; they may be newly designed or re-designed existing courses which, as part of a block, focus on issues, problems, or themes.  When appropriate, field studies, research projects, or experiments designed to assess and augment students’ ability to integrate those competencies and understanding gained throughout their academic careers should be a part of a core or block of courses.

 

Within Segment III the student must take at least one course which is centrally focused upon aiding the student in the development of awareness and understanding of cultural, and ethnic or social diversity [which may focus on the local, national and/or global level(s)[ and the complexities presented by such diversity in the study of any given human issue or achievement.  Courses which meet this requirement must include some information on, or awareness of, the impact of the course content on the various socio-economic groups potentially affected by the issue(s) or problem(s) associated with the topic(s) being studied.  Where appropriate other courses in this segment should also include a cultural diversity dimension.

 

General Learning Outcomes

 

After completion of this Segment, students:

 

1. Should have a greater appreciation of the complexity of problems and issues which confront individuals and societies as well as a greater appreciation of human achievement.

2. Should be both willing and able to study the origin and development of problems and issues.

 

3. Should demonstrate some ability to design effective procedures for investigating problems and issues utilizing their awareness that various personal, cultural, and/or procedural biases are an integral part of any research endeavor and must be taken into account.

 

  1. 4. Should be willing and able to present solutions but with the awareness of the effects such solutions may have on existing or newly created problems or issues.

 

5. Should appreciate the complexity of problems and issues which are specifically related to individuals and societies, and understand that a given problem or issue will be experienced and confronted by various cultural/ethnic groups in different ways.

 

Proposals for course sequences within this Segment will be designed and submitted by faculty members from the Schools of the Arts and Sciences Core and from inter-school programs, as well as from the School of Education, HPER, Business, and Ethnic Studies.  All General Education Committees are expected to maintain an open policy toward acceptance of course proposals from departments and schools not normally in the area designated by the committee title.  The courses or blocks of courses may be team-taught, offered in parallel, or offered in sequence.  They may be organized as modules of varying units with each module focusing on one aspect of the theme or core.

 

Any department, school, or qualified faculty member may submit for consideration a course/program proposal which meets the specific objectives of Segment III.  These objectives will be developed by the Relationships of Knowledge Committee and published by the General Education Council for review in accordance with established curriculum review procedures.

 

B. Amendment to Clarify the Responsibilities of the Segment III Committee

 

The Relationships of Knowledge (Segment III) Committee will shall be made up of twelve members composed of one elected representative from each school, one student member, one member at-large to be elected from an unrepresented area or program other than a school, and one representative from the Interdisciplinary Council (if this council is established).  Associate deans and deans of the various schools are ineligible to serve on the committee.  The Dean of Undergraduate Studies will serve in an ex-officio capacity on this committee.  Terms of office for faculty members will be three years, with initial terms staggered among one, two, and three years.

 

The Relationships of Knowledge Committee will develop detailed objectives for courses and curricular sequences in Segment III.  These objectives will be published by the General Education Council for review in accordance with established curriculum review procedures.  This Committee will evaluate courses/curricular sequences for inclusion in Segment III of the general education program.  The Committee’s reasons for disapproval of courses/curricular sequences will be stated in writing to the proposers in terms of the stated objectives of the respective area.

 

Responsibilities of the Segment III Committee

 

1. Ensuring that all clusters meet the current objectives and cluster requirements of Segment III - Relationships of Knowledge.

 

2. a) Recommending approval to the General Education Council of revised and new clusters

which meet the objectives and cluster requirements for Segment III.

b) Requesting consultation and/or revision concerning clusters and/or courses which fail to meet the objectives and cluster requirements for Segment III.

c) Recommending deletions of clusters or courses which continue to fail to meet the objectives and cluster requirements for Segment III.  The Committee shall state in writing its reasons for disapproval or deletion of courses or clusters.

d) Recommending the merger of clusters with closely related themes and the addition of courses to clusters, as a means of fulfilling the Committee’s responsibilities enumerated in items 1, 3, and 5.

e) Soliciting the development of new clusters in instances where important themes are not represented.

 

3. Ensuring that the clusters represent a broad range of issues.  The Committee may solicit suggestions and/or proposals for new issues or topics.

 

4. Reviewing proposals for new clusters and revisions of existing clusters every two years, beginning in Fall semester, 1989.

 

5. Maintaining Segment III at an appropriate size to ensure quality of program, student choice and accessibility, and a breadth of issues.

 

6. Ensuring that sufficient numbers of clusters and courses are available to students in the late afternoon or evening.

 

7. Facilitating student fulfillment of cluster requirements through a system for designating in the Class Schedule and Bulletin those courses which are not offered each semester.

 

8. Working closely with the Dean of Undergraduate Studies concerning coordination of clusters, monitoring of course offerings, and the identification and resolution of problems in Segment III.

 

9. Developing and implementing a system of evaluation for Segment III.

 

10. Reviewing and improving curriculum and instruction in Segment III, in conjunction with cluster coordinators and teaching faculty.

 

11. Monitoring Segment III and recommending changes in policy to the General Education Council.

PART II. PROPOSED AMENDMENTS TO “GUIDELINES FOR PREPARING PROPOSALS AND GENERAL EDUCATION SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES”

 

SEGMENT III

RELATIONSHIPS OF KNOWLEDGE (9 UNITS)

 

 

All students will be required to take a minimum of nine units of upper division course work as the culminations of the general education component of the baccalaureate curriculum.  In order for students to interrelate the knowledge and abilities they have gained through their general education experiences with the knowledge and abilities they have gained, or are pursuing, in their major programs, courses in this Segment must be taken after the student has achieved upper division status.

 

I. GENERAL OBJECTIVES

 

The general objectives of course work in Segment III are to provide students with the opportunity to integrate/interrelate their abilities, knowledge, and experience, and to apply their abilities, knowledge, and experience to making decisions; identifying, investigating, and evaluating human achievements; and presenting possible solutions to individual and/or societal issues or problems. In order to meet these general objectives, each 9 unit curricular package of courses in this Segment must be interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary with internal cohesiveness. The courses or blocks of courses may be the required core courses for a new or existing interdisciplinary minor; they may be newly designed or re-designed existing courses which, as part of a block, focus on issues, problems, or themes. When appropriate, field studies, research projects, or experiments designed to assess and augment students’ ability to integrate those competencies and understandings gained throughout their academic careers should be a part of a core or block of courses.

 

Within Segment III the student must take at least one course which is centrally focused upon aiding the student in the development of awareness and understanding of cultural and ethnic diversity [which may focus on the local, national and /or global levels(s)J and the complexities presented by such diversity in the study of any given human issue or achievement. Courses which meet this requirement must include some information on, or awareness of, the impact of the course content on the various socio-economic groups potentially affected by the issue(s) or problem(s) associated with the topic(s) being studies. Where appropriate, other courses in this Segment should also include a cultural diversity dimension.

 

SPECIFIC CRITERIA

 

Definition: A cluster is a package of courses in Segment III, built around a common theme and requiring at least nine units of coursework, either an existing package or a proposal for a new one.

 

In order to meet these general objectives for Segment III it is necessary for cluster proposals to meet a number of more specific criteria which will be used to judge their appropriateness.

The objectives set forth here apply to existing clusters, to proposals for new clusters, and to the evaluation of clusters.  Existing clusters will accomplish the objectives and meet cluster requirements.  Proposals will demonstrate how they will do so.  Evaluation will be conducted in terms of the objectives and requirements.

 

The focus of the evaluation is on the clusters, not on the individual courses.  Courses submitted unattached to a cluster will not be considered.

 

1. Theme

 

The content of a A cluster must be centrally focused focus on a significant (e.g., substantial, relevant, timely, or engaging) theme which concerns is highly significant in terms of human experience and, achievements or problems, past and/or present, and which compels an interdisciplinary perspective.

 

2. Integration and Application

 

a) The proposal must demonstrate how the cluster will Clusters must encourage students to integrate their knowledge, experience and abilities around the theme; under consideration.  It should show how students will be encouraged and to develop their capacities for synthesis and analysis, including problem solving, decision making, or investigating or and evaluating the implications of an given issue.

 

b) Each course in a cluster must provide for discussion, written assignments and critical analysis.

 

 

3. Interdisciplinary or Multidisciplinary Perspectives

 

One of the functions A goal of this Segment is to ensure that students will understand a diversity of approaches to any given the theme or issue.  Proposals must demonstrate that The cluster as a whole will must expose students to at least two significantly different disciplinary perspectives.  There are two ways This criterion may be fulfilled in two ways.

 

a) The proposal A cluster may demonstrate how include two or more courses from different disciplines that provide students with different perspectives, methods, theories and paradigms for approaching substantive issues, and that show how these methodologies may be integrated to achieve a fuller understanding of the theme under consideration.  Clusters proposers opting for that take this approach will be asked to must pay particular attention to the internal cohesiveness criterion below.

 

b) The proposal A cluster may demonstrate how include two or more courses drawn from a program that had has been formally recognized as interdisciplinary in its approach and philosophy, courses which encourage the integration of methodologies towards a fuller understanding of the theme under consideration.

 

4. Internal Cohesiveness

 

Each of the clusters must be internally cohesive.  Cohesiveness will be judged in terms of the extent to which the various courses are related to one another.  The faculties of each cluster are expected to formulate their individual courses with a clear understanding of what the students will be learning in the other course or courses in the cluster and to demonstrate that the courses complement one another.

 

5. Cultural, and Ethnic or Social Diversity

 

At least one course in each cluster must be centrally focused upon aiding have as a central objective that students in their develop an awareness, appreciation, and understanding of the diversity of human experience, values, and contributions, and of “the contributions to knowledge and civilization that have been made by members of various cultural and ethnic diversity and by women” (E. O. 338).  Inherit in this requirement is the concept of cultural pluralism, which embraces ethnic, cross-cultural, and intercultural studies as well as studies of the relationship between dominant and non-dominant social groups.  Courses that fulfill this requirement should include a substantial consideration of cultures other than the Western European and North American or a substantial consideration of non-dominant social groups in the U.S.  Non-dominant social groups include but are not limited to women, the aging, the disabled, lesbians and gays, and the poor, as well as ethnic and racial groups who have been excluded from dominant social, economic, or political institutions.  Courses meeting the CESD requirement should treat one or more such groups in relationship to the issue or theme of the cluster.  This course must include some information on or awareness of socio-economic groups as they are affected by the theme.  Because of the complexities of this requirement, a separate set of guidelines is provided below:

 

CULTURAL, AND ETHNIC OR SOCIAL DIVERSITY REQUIREMENT OF SEGMENT III

 

The objective or requiring a course focused substantially on cultural, ethnic and cultural or social diversity is to ensure that students will develop an awareness, appreciation, and understanding of the diversity of cultural and social experience, values, and contributions.  Inherent in this mandate is the concept of cultural pluralism, which embraces ethnic, cross-cultural, and intercultural studies as well as studies of the relationship between dominant and non-dominant social groups.  Most courses in the University reflect the experiences, contributions, and values of the Western European and North American tradition and the dominant American culture.  Thus, courses that fulfill this requirement should in most cases include a substantial consideration of cultures other than the Western European and North American and/or a substantial consideration of non-dominant social groups in the United States.

 

Cultural, and ethnic or social diversity should deal with the question of how social groups or foreign cultures are affected by the issues or theme of the Segment cluster.  The experience of non-dominant social groups distinguished by a status category other than race, ethnicity, or national origin (e.g., women, the aging, the physically disabled, gays, etc.) may be included as part of the fulfillment of this requirement.  Cultural, Eethnic and cultural or social diversity should be interpreted broadly in that: (a) grater emphasis may be placed on either cultural, ethnic or social cultural aspects; (b) culture may have political, ethnic, historical, sexual, religious, language, or class boundaries.  Courses should also provide information about socio-economic groups as they are affected by the issue or problem under consideration.

 

The requirement for a central focus can be fulfilled in such ways as the following:

A. A course may examine the application of a cluster’s theme to one particular cultural, ethnic or cultural social group or foreign culture.  Where courses are devoted specifically to non-dominant groups such as ethnic groups, women, or to the culture of countries other than the United States, they should take into account social and economic variations within the primary groups under consideration.

 

Among the courses in this category that will be favorably considered, so long as they also fulfill the other criteria for Segment III, are the following:

 

  1. 1. Courses in Ethnic Studies which expose students to the relationship between dominant and non-dominant cultures and to the diversity of the American ethnic heritage.

 

  1. 2. Courses on the experience or culture and language of non-English speaking peoples, especially those of developing and other non-Western European countries.

 

  1. 3. Courses that focus on the experience of non-random social groups defined by a status category other than race, ethnicity, or national origin (e.g., women, the aging, the physically disabled, etc.) if they examine substantially the diversity of ethnicity and/or socio-economic status within the particular social group.

 

B. A special portion of the course may be devoted exclusively to the application of the cluster theme to the ethnic, cultural, and social groups defined above.  In this case, at least one-third of the course should engage in this endeavor.  A portion of these sessions may deal with non-dominant groups other than those categorized as ethnic or racial, but at least two weeks should be devoted to ethnic diversity and a portion should deal with socio-economic differences.  Courses that focus this special portion exclusively on ethnicity are acceptable so long as they include a socio-economic component.

 

C. A course may integrate the analysis of ethnic and other cultural groups into each topic as it is presented.  Where cultural and non-dominant/ethnic groups are considered throughout the course, the course outline should clearly demonstrate how each major topic applies to them.  A consideration of socio-economic differences should be included.

 

D. A course may have a central focus on cross-cultural studies (e.g. the comparison of two or more cultures’ history, socio-political and economic structures, art, religion, etc.) especially if one or more of the cultures is non-Western European.  These studies should implement the Segment theme and should consider socio-economic differences.

 

II. REQUIREMENTS FOR CLUSTERS

 

A. Proposals

 

Proposals must show how the cluster as a whole incorporates each component of fulfills the general objectives: i.e. unifying theme, integration and application, interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary perspectives, internal cohesiveness, and cultural and ethnic diversity objectives of Segment III and the requirements set forth in this section.  Course material must be sufficiently explicit and detailed to show the contributions of each course to fulfillment of the aims of the cluster.  When the requirements for the cluster provide the students with alternative combinations of courses, the justification for the cluster must demonstrate that any acceptable combination of courses meets all the objectives of the Segment.

 

B. Clusters and Courses

 

1. Low-enrollment clusters

 

Clusters chosen by fewer than 1 percent of graduate in an academic year shall be reviewed by the Segment III Committee; if such a cluster can not be suitably revised and continues to draw fewer than 1 percent of the graduates, it may be deleted from Segment III.

 

2. Implementation of CESD requirement

 

Student completion of the Cultural, and Ethnic or Social Diversity requirement must follow from the requirements of the cluster itself.  At least one requirement of the cluster must direct the student to take a CESD course or one of a set of courses, all of which have been approved for the CESD requirement.

 

3. Coordination

 

a) Each cluster must have a coordinator who is responsible for the cluster and for communications concerning the cluster.  The coordinator is responsible for submitting the annual cluster report and proposals for revision of the cluster as needed or as requested by the Segment III Committee.  The cluster coordinator is responsible for communicating with the instructors of the courses in the cluster to ensure that the objectives of Segment III - Relationships of Knowledge continue to be met.

 

b) In the event of vacancies or problems in the coordinator’s role, it is the responsibility of the dean(s) of the school(s) in which the cluster is primarily located, in consultation with cluster faculty, to appoint a new coordinator.

 

4. Course approval and variable-topic courses

 

All courses in Segment III clusters must be upper division courses which have been approved for the SFSU Bulletin.  In the case of variable topic courses, only the generic title is listed in the Bulletin.  Each variant of a variable topic course must be individually approved for a given cluster.

 

5. Frequency of course offerings

 

a) Clusters must be accessible to students and will be evaluated in terms of how accessible they are.

 

b) Each course in a cluster must be offered at least once in each academic year.  A course offering is defined as a listing in the course history file which lists course enrollments at the fourth week of instruction.  An exception may be made when the sole instructor of a cluster course plans to be on leave for a full year; in this case, the instructor or the department chair should inform the cluster coordinator and the Segment III Committee Chair at least one semester in advance of the leave.  Also, exceptions to the once-a-year rule may be made when the sole instructor of a cluster course has an extended illness and the cluster coordinator requests the exception.  NEXA will be excepted from this rule.

 

c) Courses typically offered less than once a semester will be so designated in the General Education sections of the Class Schedule and the Bulletin.

 

d) Offering plan.  Each cluster shall submit an Offering Plan which adheres to these requirements and to which the deans or directors of schools, and the chairperson of departments or programs which offer courses in the cluster, have indicated their agreement.  The Offering Plan shall show the planned frequency and pattern of offering for courses in the cluster.

 

6. Evaluation

 

a) The Segment III Committee will be responsible for devising an evaluation process for Segment III.  This process will include detailed information specifying how often courses (or clusters) will be evaluated, who will evaluate courses (or clusters), who will have access to the results of the evaluation, and the time frame to be used before the committee can recommend revision or deletion of a course or cluster from Segment III.

 

b) This evaluation process must be approved by the General Education Council, the Educational Policies Council and the Academic Senate before it can be formally adopted.  This process must also be reviewed for any possible conflict with the current CFA contract before it receives final approval.

 

 

*** Not to be considered policy until approved by the President ***

January 16, 1989

 

To: Resident Robert A. Corrigan

 

From: Rufus P. Browning, Chair, General Education Council

 

Subject: Academic Senate Recommendation #F88-157 (Segment III of the General Education Program)

 

You may find the attached items useful as you examine Recommendation #F88-157. They were originally prepared for members of the Educational Policies Council and Academic Senate.

 

Recent History: Segment HI of the SFSU General Education Program

 

Why Segment III? Why Clusters? Background and Rationale for G.E. Segment III Recommendations

 

Outline of Goals and Provisions of G.E.C. Segment III Recommendations

 

Enclosures

RECENT HISTORY: SEGMENT III of the SFSU GENERAL EDUCATION PROGRAM

 

1985 GE Program is opened to new proposals. For Segment III, 53 new or revised clusters are proposed, 35 new clusters are approved, and 15 existing clusters are revised, bringing the total number to 81. Provost Ianni accepts revisions but rejects proposals for new clusters pending thorough review of the GE Program.

 

1986 GEC composes a format for a special committee to review the GE Program (the Committee for the Five-Year, Internal Review of GE); committee members are chosen; planning proceeds.

 

1986-87 Internal Review Committee undertakes surveys of faculty and students, meets with faculty at Asilomar, submits Final Report.

 

Spr 1987 Several clusters with zero student enrollments and/or gross defects in implementation are dropped from Segment III by the Segment III Committee and GEC after a lengthy notification and discussion process, reducing number to 41.

 

Spr 1987 External Review Committee visits SFSU, submits report.

 

May 1987 WASC Visiting Team cites GE as a critical problem for SFSU referring to “the obduracy of the problem” at SFSU; to an apparent lack of “interest in examining the quality of the [GE] curriculum”; and to the “profusion of courses [in GE], some highly specialized and some plainly reflecting idiosyncratic interests of individual faculty.”

 

Sept 1987 Academic Senate adopts calendar for consideration and adoption of GE reforms, calling for completion of GEC policy proposals by end of September. GEC is unable to meet this deadline.

 

Nov 1987 Senate Chair Anita Silvers invites Schools to consider GE alternatives and respond to EPC. Some School Councils meet with GEC members to discuss GE, Segment III in particular; some discussion takes place in EPC.

 

1987-88 Segment III Committee and GEC review IR and ER recommendations and numerous proposals for alternative models of Segment III and the GE Program as a whole. Three GEC recommendations are sent to EPC in October and approved by the Senate and the President (in May):

  • • fixed units in Seg. III and areas of Seg. II (9 each),
  • • deleting lower-division requirement in Seg. II, and
  • • separating upper-division and residence requirements for upper-division transfer students from four-year institutions.

 

May 1988 GEC submits its recommendations for Segment III to EPC.

 

May/Sept/Oct 1988 EPC consideration/amendment of GEC recommendations.

 

Nov/Dec 1988 Academic Senate consideration, amendment, passage.

 

OUTLINE OF GOALS AND PROVISIONS

of General Education Segment Council Segment III Recommendations of 4/27/88, as amended by the Educational Policies Council and passed 10/25/88, and amended by the Academic Senate and passed 12/13/88

 

Provisions of the Segment III Recommendations that are related to particular objectives are scattered throughout the document. This outline shows how objectives are implemented in the recommendations. References to page numbers are to Academic Senate Policy Recommendation #F88-157 dated January 13, 1988.

 

OBJECTIVE

RECOMMENDATION

  1. A. Strengthen the educational experience in Segment III clusters.
  1. 1. Require students to take 9 units in a cluster instead of 6-9 (p. 2).
  2. 2. Require students to complete Segment I before taking Segment III (p. 2).
  3. 3. Require that all Segment III courses provide for discussion, writing, and critical analysis (p. 7)
  4. 4. Strengthen coordination of clusters (p. 10)
  5. 5. Focus work of Seg. III Committee on (a) quality and breadth of issues dealt with in Seg. III; (b) review of curriculum and instruction in Seg. III, in conjunction with cluster faculty (pp. 4-5).
  • B. Simplify Segment III requirements for students
  • 1. Make fulfillment of the CESD requirement follow from the requirements of each cluster, rather than as an overlay (p. 10).

 

[Note: Major simplification of fixed units in Segment III and areas of Segment II already passed in spring 1998.]

    1. C. Make clusters more accessible to students
  • 1. Set course offering standard, require clusters to have offering plans, and designate infrequently offered courses in Bulletin and Class Schedule (pp. 10-11)
  • 2. Provide for review and, if appropriate, deletion of clusters chosen by few students (p. 10).
  • 3. Strengthen coordination of clusters (p. 10).
  • 4. Make role of Seg. III Committee more explicit with respect to accessibility (pp. 4, 10).
  • D. Strengthen and regularize the process of improvement of Segment III.
  • 1. Strengthen the responsibilities of the Seg. III Committee and establish a regular review process for new proposal (pp. 4-5)
  • 2. Re-emphasize and sharpen the language of Seg. III objectives and establish clear requirements and standards for existing and proposed clusters (pp. 4-11).
  • 3. Devise evaluation process for Segment III (p. 11).

 

RB 1/16/89: SIIIGOAL

WHY SEGMENT III? WHY CLUSTERS?

Background and Rationale for G. E. Segment III Recommendations 

passed December 13, 1988 (#F88-157)

 

Prepared by Rufus Browning, Chair

General Education Council

January 16, 1989

 

1. Segment III is the component of the SFSU General Education Program designed to implement the Title 5 requirement for 9 upper division units in general education.

Segment III presently consists of clusters of courses on 41 themes, with 3-11 courses each, incorporating 215 separate courses altogether.

 

2. CSU guidelines (E.O. 338) especially relevant for Segment III are:

 

    • • Programs should be organized so that their “objectives are perceived as interrelated elements, not as isolated fragments.”
    • • Campuses should consider “the organization of approved courses into a variety of ‘cores’ or ‘themes’ with underlying unifying rationales among which students may choose.”
    • • Campuses should consider “the possibility of integrative courses, especially at the upper division level, which feature the interrelationships among disciplines within and across traditional general education categories.
    • • Campuses should provide “for reasonable ordering of requirements so that, for example, learning skills will be completed relatively early and integrative experiences relatively later.”
    • • Campuses should develop “programs in terms of educational goals and student needs rather than in terms of traditional titles of academic disciplines and organizational units.”

 

3. Segment III is governed by goals set forth in Academic Senate Policy #F80-64:

The general objectives of course work in Segment III are to provide students with the opportunity to integrate/interrelate their abilities, knowledge, and experience, and apply their abilities, knowledge, and experience to making decisions; identifying, investigating, and evaluating human achievements; and presenting possible solutions to individual and/or societal issues or problems. In order to meet these general objectives, each 6-9 unit curricular package of courses in this Segment must be interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary with internal cohesiveness (p. 14, emphasis added).

 

4. What major problems with the present Segment III did the GEC address in its work? 

The problems GEC grappled with in 1987-88 were clearly laid out in the findings and recommendations of the internal and external review committees submitted in spring 1987, backed up by the prodigious data collection effort of the internal committee, and supplemented by the experience of members of the GE Advising Council, the Advising Center, and the Office of Admissions and Records. As identified by the Internal Review Committee’s Final Report (pp. 126-29), these problems were:

 

a) Widespread dissatisfaction with Segment III among both students and faculty, on grounds of structure, process, governance, content, achievement of goals, and compliance with Title 5 and E. O. 338.

 

b) Inaccessibility of many Segment III courses to students, hence far too frequent student frustration and problems completing chosen clusters; excessive burden on advising and petitioning process.

 

c) Excessive complexity and poor presentation of choices and requirements; frequent student failure to understand and follow the variable (6-9) unit provision, special cluster requirements, CED overlay, and the inclusion of variable-topic courses with only some variants approved for GE.  Inability of many faculty to advise students in the face of such complexity; excessive burden on advising function.

 

d) Partial failure to achieve goals of linking theory and practice and integrating across disciplines; partial failure to achieve genuine coordination of cluster courses.

 

e) Partial failure of the all-university committee structure for governance of GE and of the administration of the Program.

 

5. The GEC did not seriously consider leaving Segment III unchanged.

We examined many models for the upper-division GE requirement. We also examined closely the strengths and weaknesses of existing clusters. Our conclusions from this examination were:

 

a) Although the reputation of Segment III overall is not good, some clusters do address appropriately significant topics, are well coordinated, are accessible to students, and are well received. It seemed to us appropriate to build, if possible, upon the strong parts of the present Segment III.

 

b) Some models for Segment III gave up the goal of integration across broad areas of knowledge that is prominent in CSU guidelines and in SFSU GE policy. We were not willing to do this.

 

c) Although alternative models for Segment III were proposed as distinctive ways of organizing a 11 upper-division GE work, we concluded that their core ideas could instead be incorporated in the design of new clusters within the present Segment III structure. This meant we did not need to dismantle the present Segment III entirely in order to bring into it the best implementations of good ideas for upper-division GE work.

 

6. These conclusions led the GEC to recommend evolutionary improvement of Segment III rather than its replacement by any single alternative model.

In opting for evolutionary improvement, the GEC aimed to:

 

a) preserve the goal of integration across broad areas of study;

 

b) preserve in Segment III much of the diversity and richness of faculty resources that characterizes SFSU;

 

c) build upon good topics and clusters already in place; and

 

d) avoid shortcomings of past Segment III proposal and review processes; in particular, avoid another massive proposal and review conducted under excessively limited time constraints.

 

We also believed that we could accomplish within the present structure of Segment III reforms recommended by the GE review committees, without wholesale replacement of Segment III. In pursuit of that objective, we recommend:

 

e) moving immediately to clarify and simplify Segment III requirements and to put in place policies that will make Segment III significantly more accessible to students;

 

f) with respect to the content of Segment III - its themes, clusters, and courses - strengthening policies and procedures to require and facilitate improvement.

 

7. We envision significant change in Segment III clusters, in both form and content.

But it seems to us unnecessary to force everything we do in upper division GE into a single mold; it also seems to us possible to develop and implement in Segment III exemplars of the good ideas for themes, clusters, or other sets of courses envisioned by other proposals.  Several years down the road, some clusters in a revised Segment III might look like the broad themes and “thematic course groupings” suggested by the University Interdisciplinary Council.  Others might be composed of integrative courses within each area (PBS, BSS, HCA), as in another model, but focusing on a common theme as provided in Segment III policy.  Themes and clusters developed to meet the UIC criteria or the integrative-course model would probably rank high in terms on integration, interdisciplinary, and significance of topic, all of which are important goals in the recommended policy.

 

In short, the recommendations retain the word “clusters” but envision deliberate progress toward a broader and stronger set of thematic course groupings than at present.  We believe that schools and interdisciplinary groups of faculty should both play significant roles in the development of improved clusters.

 

8. If the GEC/EPC recommendations are passed, what will happen next?

The Segment III Committee and GEC will adopt plans for revision of existing clusters in the light of the new policy, and plans for a proposal process for new themes (topics) and clusters of courses that address them.  Some revisions of existing clusters can be undertaken and completed quickly; major restructuring and the development of new proposals require a more deliberate process.

 

RB l/16/89:WHYSEG3B